Record the appropriate code for weather conditions at the time of the crash.


The prevailing atmospheric conditions that existed at the time of the crash.


Important for management/administration and evaluation. Critical for prevention programs and engineering evaluations.

Code  Definition  Definition Example
1 Clear Includes partial cloudiness if sunlight is not diminished.
2 Cloudy Usually “overcast” but may include partial cloudiness if light is diminished.
3 Rain This refers to precipitation other than snow, hail or sleet, or freezing rain. Precipitation falling as “mist” should be coded as “Rain”.
4 Snow This attribute describes a roadway surface that is covered with snow.
5 Sleet, Hail, Freezing Rain This attribute would apply to conditions where precipitation is falling as ice (sleet/hail) or precipitation falling as liquid (rain) and then freezing on the roadway.
6 Fog, Smog, Smoke This includes natural or man-made conditions that cause reduced visibility.
7 Severe Crosswinds Strong air flow perpendicular to the intended path of travel.
8 Blowing Sand, Snow Earthen particles being blown about by the wind, reducing visibility. Wind-driven snow that reduces visibility. Blowing snow can be falling snow or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds.
97 Other This attribute would be used for a variable that is not addressed by the previous attribute options.  If this attribute is used it is recommended it is explained in the narrative.
99 Unknown If this attribute is used, it is recommended to be explained in the narrative.


If no other Weather Condition is applicable, what is the appropriate entry for the secondary field?

If only one Weather Condition applies, leave the second field empty.

Accuracy Checks

  • If the value of Weather Condition is ‘rain’, ‘snow’, ‘sleet’, ‘hail’, or ‘freezing rain’, then Road Surface Condition cannot be ‘dry’. Note: This may not apply in unusual locations, such as a tunnel.
  • If the crash occurred between May and September, the value of Road Surface Condition should not be ‘snow’, ‘ice’, or ‘slush’.
  • If the value for Weather Conditions is ‘clear’, Road Contributing Circumstances should not be ‘road surface condition (wet, icy, snow, slush, etc.)’.

Other Related Fields

Road Surface

Data Quality Audit Results

Report Type Acceptable Inconsistent Invalid Empty
Local Police (electronic) 336 94.6% 12 3.4% 2 0.6% 5 1.4%
Local Police (paper) 340 94.2% 16 4.4% 5 1.4%
State Police (electronic) 306 91.6% 1 0.3% 27 8.1%
Total 982 93.5% 29 2.8% 2 0.2% 37 3.5%

Of the reports audited, Weather Conditions was completed in an acceptable manner 93 percent of the time. As shown here, State Police had a slightly higher incidence of leaving the field empty than local Police but had a lower incidence of inconsistencies between this field and other fields on the crash report. Auditors commented that officers often completed the second weather field with either the same entry as the first weather condition code, or marked it unknown. With no significant difference between paper and electronically submitted reports, this does not appear to be a systems issue.